Howard M. Laten
Ph.D., 1978, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison
Area of Research: Plant Retrotransposons and DNA Barcoding Plant Species
Our investigations are focused on 1) the characterization of plant retrotransposons and 2) DNA barcoding of the U.S. seed bank collection. Retrotransposons are a class of repetitive genetic elements embedded in the genomes of their hosts. They are the most abundant kind of DNA in the genomes of virtually all plants and animals. In many plants and some animals, including humans, they constitute more than 80% of chromosomal DNA. They are capable of self-replication and utilize the enzyme reverse transcriptase to sponsor the replication of their small genomes. Unlike their retrovirus cousins, they are non-infectious and are transmitted from one generation to the next through the germ-line. Once considered by many molecular geneticists to be pesky genetic parasites and dubbed "selfish DNA", they are now considered to play major roles in chromosome transmission, gene expression, mutation, epigenetic regulation, genome rearrangement, and the evolution of species. They may more appropriately be called evolution-inducing symbionts.
We are cataloging their distribution and studying how they impact on the evolution of plants and plant genomes. We are also focused on determining the function of a gene found in several plant retrotransposon families that resembles the envelope protein found in mammalian viruses, including retroviruses like HIV.
On an unrelated project, we are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in their efforts to confirm the species identification of their massive legume seed repository using DNA barcoding technology.
We are using both experimental and bioinformatics approaches to explore these questions in the genomes of legumes, specifically soybean and clover.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS (with undergraduate co-authors*)
*Jreisat, C. & Laten, H.M. (2017) Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Regions Identify Possible Misidentification or Mislabeling among Trifolium (Clover) Specimens from Germplasm Collections. Crop Science 57: 322-326.
*Becker, K.D., *Thomas, M.C., *Martini, S., *Tautvydas, S., *Didorchuk, V., *Shanker, R.M. & Laten, H.M. (2016) Characterization of new transposable element sub-families from white clover (Trifolium repens) using PCR amplification. Genetica 144: 577–589.
*Becker, K.E. & Laten, H.M. 2015. Consensus sequences of a Copia-like retrotransposon family, IvanaA, from Trifolium repens. Repbase Rep. 15, 1843, 1846.
*Martini, S. & Laten, H.M. 2015. Consensus sequences of Copia-like retrotransposon family IvanaB from Trifolium repens. Repbase Rep. 15, 1844, 1845.
*Thomas, M.C. & Laten, H.M. 2015. Consensus sequence of a LINE retrotransposon family from Trifolium repens. Repbase Rep. 15, 1847.
*Sbrocchi, A.J. & Laten, H.M. 2013. Consensus sequence of a SIRE1-related element from red clover (Trifolium pratense L). Repbase Rep. 13: 1229-1230.
Laten, H.M. & Gaston, G.D. 2012. Plant Endogenous Retroviruses? A Case of Mysterious ORFs. In: Topics in Current Genetics: Plant Transposable Elements - Impact on Genome Structure & Function, M.-A. Grandbastien and J.M. Casacuberta, eds., Springer, New York, pp. 89-112.
*Mogil, L.S. *Slowikowski, K. & Laten, H.M. 2012. Computational and experimental analyses of retrotransposon-associated minisatellite DNAs in the soybean genome. BMC Bioinformatics 13: S13.
Laten, H.M. and Bousios, A. 2012. The Sireviruses, In Springer Index of Viruses, Second Edition, C. Tidona and G. Darai, eds., Springer, New York, pp. 1561-1564.
Du, J., Tian, Z., Hans, C., Laten, H.M., Jackson, S.A., Cannon, S.B., Shoemaker R.C. & Ma J. 2010. Evolutionary conservation, diversity and specificity of LTR-retrotransposons in flowering plants: new insights from genome-wide analysis and multi-specific comparison. Plant J. 63: 584-598.
Laten, H.M., *Mogil, L.S. & *Wright, L.N.. 2009. A shotgun approach to discovering and reconstructing consensus retrotransposons ex novo from dense contigs of short sequences derived from Genbank Genome Survey Sequence database records. Gene 448: 168–173.
*Flasch, D.A., *Rebman, E.K., *Olfson, E.H., *Nguyen, K.K., *Geirut, L.E., *Garland, M.C., *Lindorfer, C.M., & Laten, H.M. 2008. Analysis of insertional sites of the SIRE1 retroelement family from Glycine max using GenBank BAC-end sequences. In Silico Biol 8: 531-543.