CLST 395 Topography
Summer 2013 - Session I
John Felice Rome Center
The Topography of Ancient Rome (CLST/ROST 395)
Summer I 2013
Tues. /Thurs. 9:00-12:20
Prof. Sharon Salvadori
Office Hours: by appointment
Cell phone: 339 545 9356
Course Description and Objectives
This is an upper level survey course on the topography of the city of Rome from its origins (c. 753 B.C.) to the reign of Constantine (312-337 AD), an exploration of the most important natural and especially artificial or man-made areas of the city. The definition and development of urban space are examined in the context of political, religious, military and social functions and meanings. Monumental art and architecture, as well as roads, bridges, shops and homes are the “primary source” for this examination of the built environment and visual culture of Ancient Rome. The primary aim of the course is to provide an in-depth familiarity and appreciation of the multifaceted nature of city in its original historical context. The class is taught at archeological sites and in museums in Rome. The course has a fee of € 66 per student to cover cost of tickets at sites. Please settle fee with the business office at the beginning of the summer term.
- understanding of key aspects of urban layout and spatial organization in Ancient Rome
- understanding of key structural, functional and stylistic aspects of Ancient Roman art and architecture
- ability to analyze and interpret the urban topography and development of Ancient Rome and, more specifically, the motives in the creation, use and reception of areas, neighborhoods and monuments in their original (Ancient) political, religious, and social contexts
- skills for the critical analysis of urban topography and visual culture generally
- familiarity with different methods of art historical analysis and terminology and the ability to deploy them successfully
- ability to apply critical thinking and analysis generally
- ability to select and organize material to produce a coherent and cogent argument both orally and in writing- and to do so to so respecting deadlines.
- ability to exchange ideas and engage in discussion with peers
- Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and its Environs: An Archaeological Guide
- Course handbook
Required Reading on Library Reserve (chapters, entries or page numbers specified in the course schedule)
- Claridge, A. (1988) The Oxford Archeological Guide to Rome
- Kleiner, D.E.E. (1992) Roman Sculpture
- Stamper, J. (2005)The Architecture of Roman Temples. The Republic to the Middle Empire
- Stambaugh, J. (1998) The Ancient Roman City
***With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in the course schedule
COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND LOGISTICS
Final grades are based on attendance, participation, 6 quizzes, 1 oral report, 1 final exam, and 1 term paper, as follows:
Attendance required, not graded
Oral Presentation 15%
Mid-term Exam 20%
Short Paper 20%
Final Exam: 25%
Attendance (required not graded)
All scheduled classes are mandatory. Because this is an on-site course that occasionally includes special scheduled permits to sites and museums it has strict time limitations. You must, therefore, also always be punctual. You should calculate 75-90 minutes travel time from JFRC to our meeting places (specified below in the class schedule.), which means you must be out of the door by 8 AM! On site class will always start promptly and it is your responsibility to find out where the meeting places are. You may ask me in advance, but no later than during the previous class. I will not respond to last minute emails or phone calls. Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archeological Guide (your textbook!) has many useful maps to locate sites. For subway and bus lines consult www.atac. it (available in English).
Participation (5% of course grade)
Active participation is expected of all students, but the level or amount of your engagement is graded. Although participation is only 5% of the course grade it could ensure an A rather than an A- as your final grade. Participating means coming to class having read the week’s assignment (listed in the schedule below), prepared to ask and answer questions and to share any pertinent observations. Remember too that the more you engage, the more fun the class will be not only for you but also for everyone else (me included).
Quizzes (15% of course grade)
6 quizzes will be given in the course of the term (the dates are inserted in the course schedule.) The quiz with the lowest score will be omitted from the final tally; the remaining 5 quizzes are therefore each worth 3% of the course grade. Each quiz will consist in a series of questions on specific areas, monument types (including individual structural or stylistic features), individual monuments or sets of monuments in Ancient Rome. They are designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. You may be asked the name of an area or monument, its location, its date, its function, its patronage; you may also be asked to describe it (main physical characteristics, structural and decorative components, materials used, etc); or you may be asked to a question on some aspect of its historical significance (e.g. the possible motivations for designating an area of the city with specific functions or the intended meaning- political, religious, social aesthetic, etc.- of individual monuments). The questions will be based on material that we have already covered in class, but completing the required reading is necessary to pass each and every quiz. Answers to individual questions should always be brief: in some cases one or two words or word or a short phrase will suffice and no answer should require more than two or three sentences. Depending on the quiz, you will be given anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to answer.
Oral Presentation (15% of course grade)
The oral presentation consists of a 10-minute report (no more) to the class on an area, monument or artwork. It is intended to develop your skills in research, observation, interpretation, evaluation and public speaking. Developing the ability to express yourself orally in a clear, concise and effective manner is as important as the content of the presentation (content without form undermines content itself...)
The presentation topics have been inserted in the course schedule. A sign up sheet will be provided the first day of class.
The presentation in class must include:
• a descriptive account of the monument/artwork
• a contextual and interpretative discussion (function, patronage, meanings, associations, impact, etc., as relevant)
• a pertinent Ancient source to be read to the class (Aicher 2006 and Shelton 1998 are two good sourcebooks)
• 2-3 questions raised by the monument, artwork or subject addressed to the class to engage them directly in your topic and so further develop it
Your presentation must clearly demonstrate that
1. you have read and understood the required reading listed on your syllabus for your topic
2. you have read and understood at least one additional academic source on your topic; the most obvious (and easiest) option is to choose a relevant publication from the "Suggested Reading" listed on your syllabus; but other pertinent books and periodicals available in the JFRC library, or available through JSTOR, MUSE and other legitimate academic publication data bases may also be used. Please be aware that for other Internet sources, the rule of thumb is if it exists in print it is acceptable, if doesn't it isn't. So, e.g. an article from an academic periodical that has been made available on line is fine, but a web-site on monuments, historical background, etc. is not. When in doubt, please ask me.
On the day of presentation you also must submit:
1. one-page or two-page handout to all members of the class(including me) with an outline of indicating the key points of your presentation. If appropriate, please also provide copies of supporting images from books or the internet (please search ARTSTOR and Vroma.org before using other internet image data bases); if pertinent plans, images etc. are available in course handbook, make sure to at least refer to them by page numbers.
2. A bibliographyto be given to all members of the class(including me). The bibliography must include:
• relevant titles from the required reading on your syllabus
• reference to the ancient source you quote during your presentation
• at least one additional title from the suggested reading or from your own research (But please note that internet sources such as Wikipedia are not valid. The rule of thumb is if it is published by an academic press and exists in print it counts, if it does not it doesn't).
3. 1. summary (c.3 pages)consisting of a detailed outline of your presentation to be tuned into me.
the presentation itself combined with 1-3 above is the basis of your grade
Short Essay (20% of course grade)
Due Date: Tues. June 4 (in class)
Topic: Temples and the use of city space between c. 300 B.C. and c. 50 B.C.
Length; 1500 words (c. 4-5 double-spaced pages).
The essay question will be posted on Blackboard the week before the due date. We will also be discussing the essay together in class during the second week of class.
Mid-term Exam (20% of course grade)
Due Date: Tues. June 11 (in class).
The mid-term is a take-home exam.Like the quizzes, is designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts about specific areas, monument types, individual monuments or sets of monuments in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. However, whereas in the quizzes your answers to each question must be brief, the test will consist in 4 questions in the form of comparisons which will require longer, more articulated, discursive answers focusing on material we have studied up to class # 6 (Kings to Augustus). The exam will be posted a week prior to the due date on Blackboard as a PPoint presentation. Each comparison will consist of images of two sites or monuments. You must identify each one: name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, patronage, as relevant. But also (and most importantly) you must consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences. Typically the primary significance of comparisons is rooted in historically specific (and significant) connections which variously combine meaning, function, patronage and structural or formal components. E.g. if the comparison consists of the garden room at Livia's villa at Prima Porta with the Ara Pacis, the fact that the first is decorated with paintings and the second with sculpture, is less important than the fact that the imagery depicted in both expresses interrelated or similar (though not identical) concerns of the Augustan period in different viewing contexts, denoting both the pervasive and sophisticated character of Augustan visual ideology ...obviously you would mention the salient elements of that ideology....
final exam (25% of the course grade)
The final exam takes place at JFRC on the last scheduled class (Thurs. June 21.) It is cumulative, although with a greater emphasis on post-Augustan Rome. And, again, it is structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. A (voluntary) review session will be scheduled at JFRC for Wed. (time and classroom TBA).
The exam will consist in:
-6 slide identifications 5 minutes each, worth 30% of your exam grade (5% each). Name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant. E.g. the Colosseum does not, strictly speaking, have a subject, but the marble friezes on the Ara Pacis do; a portrait statue of Augustus is just that, but the emperor may be depicted as young, middle-aged or old, may be dressed in civilian, priestly or military garb (or combinations...) and these kinds of visual elements must be both mentioned and described (e.g. what visual devices are employed to represent Augustus made to look youthful? what iconographic elements denote that he is officiating as a priest?). Last but not least, you must indicate at least one reason the topographical area, monument or artwork was significant in its original historical context. For example in addition to noting that the Colosseum was built by Vespasian on the site of the artificial lake in Nero's Domus Aurea complex, you should explain (however briefly) that the location was very significant from a symbolic (and propagandistic) point of view since it transformed imperial property destined for the private enjoyment of Nero to a public venue destined for the entertainment of all Roman citizens. Similarly, in addition describing how a portrait of Augustus depicts him as young, you should mention that all his portraits show him a young and discuss (however briefly) what message was being conveyed by this representation of " eternal" youth....An identification which lists a complete series of correct facts, but fails to discuss why they are significant, will score lower than one that is missing a few facts but which includes an assessment of historical significance.
-4 slide comparisons 10 minutes each, worth 40% of the exam grade. One or more images of two sites or monuments will be shown to you. You must identify each one (again name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, patronage, but also (and most importantly) consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences (see guidelines for comparisons under mid-term above).
-1 essay 30 minutes, worth 30% of the exam grade. A week before the exam (Thurs. June 14) you will be given 2 essay questions accompanied by images of sites and/or monuments. One of the two will be on exam. However, the other topic will undoubtedly show up in the identifications and comparisons, so be sure to prepare for both.
With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in course schedule, including chapters, entries or page numbers. The readings listed in the course schedule are occasionally repeated. This is because we proceed chronologically, topographically and thematically and focus on both art and architecture in the city of Rome, while the organization of the books in the required and suggested reading varies.
Please be aware that this is an intensive course and to successfully complete it you should spend at least 8 hrs per week (or one hour for every class hour) outside of class reading, taking notes, visiting sites on your own, and looking at pictures.Note too that completing your required reading means going to the library and using the reserve shelf. Please organize your time, keeping in mind that other students will also be using the shelf (xeroxing relevant pages is always an option).
A bibliography of additional reading and is provided after the course schedule (under heading entitled: Suggested Reading). A number of these readings are assigned, under the heading "Suggested Reading" in the course schedule. This means that they are not mandatory, but they are strongly recommended. Usually students who achieve top grades (B+, A- and A) are those who consistently do a significant amount of the recommended reading. Many of the sources cited under "Suggested Reading" are also indispensable for your oral presentation. The titles are abbreviated in the schedule, but are listed in full in the bibliography at the end of the syllabus. They are available on the reserve shelf in the library, in the stacks in the library, or retrievable from the internet, especially via JSTOR. If you have never downloaded articles from JSTOR the librarians will be more than happy to show you how easy it is! You are also strongly encouraged to look at as many Roman monuments as possible both in person, reproduced in books and available on line (see the list of Internet resources also provided); this is par for the course for anyone taking art history. And of course to read even more.
The course-handbook must be brought to each and every class, as it has plans, elevations, reconstructions of monuments and excerpts from Ancient authors that we will consult during class.
Class-handouts. For every class you will be given a hand-out consisting of a brief summary of the class, a list of the areas, monuments visited, and terms (usually no more than 1 or 2 typed pages). Occasionally images or excerpts from Ancient texts not included in the handbook will also be provided. These handouts are meant to help you organize your notes but, as you will quickly realize, they in no way replace careful note-taking.
Taking notes in class. As for any course it is imperative to take notes, but because we will almost invariably be standing during class you should consider a liquid-ink pen or a pencil and a hard-back note-book or a clipboard for your note pad. Taking notes in your course handbook is also an option (and a helpful one, as you have text and images together), but it is soft and so probably also requires the aid of a clipboard.
Photography. You are allowed to bring your camera to class, but may take pictures only after we have finished discussing individual monuments, that is without interrupting class.
Dress-code. Please remember to wear sturdy but comfortable shoes and to be equipped for the weather. Note too that in Italy, generally speaking, the better you dress the better they treat you. You do not, by any means, have to be elegant when you come to class, but please do not come in sweat-pants, shorts, ripped T-shirts and jeans, flip-flops and the like.
1. Tues. May 21
Introduction to course : Course content (chronological and thematic overview),requirements, logistics, etc. / Rome's foundation: topography and mythology/ Architectural orders and building materials(on-site)
****Sign Up for Oral Presentations****
2. Thurs. May 23
The construction of memory: the Victory precinct on the Palatine
Civic identity and self-representation: the Roman Forum Valley from the Kings to the Republic
Entrance to Palatine Hill on Via di San Gregorio
**Quiz 1: architectural orders / Roman use of architectural orders**
3. Tues. May 28
The Republican state and the military commander:
Temples, Triumphs and Theatres
Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
1. Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
2. Round Temple in the Forum Boarium
**Quiz 2: Topography of the Early Roman Forum Valley**
4. Thurs. May 30
Transitions from Republic to the Empire: Caesar and Augustus
Campo di Fiori by statue of Giordano Bruno in center of square
3. Forum of Julius Caesar
4. Forum of Augustus
*******************Quiz 3: Temple plans***************
5. Tues. June 4
Augustan Rome: the Campus Martius
Side of the Ara Pacis Museum by inscription opposite Mausoleum of Augustus
5. Mausoleum of Augustus
6. Augustan Sundial (aka Horologium)
7. Theater of Marcellus
********************Short essay due*******************
6. Thurs. June 6
Transitions from Republic to Empire: self-representation, identity and power, statues and portraits in Rome
Entrance Palazzo Massimo (Piazza dei Cinquecento, by Termini)
8. Tivoli General
9. Garden Room from the Villa at Prima Porta
Quiz 4: Augustan Campus Martius
7. Tues. June 11
Topography, Monuments and Imperial Power : Nero to Domitian
Metro stop Colosseo (B line) by Roman sarcophagus recycled as fountain (to the left as you exit Metro, past newspaper stand)
11. Temple deified Vespasian & Titus
12. Arch of Titus
********************Mid-term exam due*********************
8. Thurs. June 13
Topography, Monuments and Imperial Power
Trajan to Marcus Aurelius
Column of Trajan (by column on square/ park side)
13. Column of Trajan
14. Trajan's Markets
Quiz 5: Flavian Colossuem Valley and Velia (Arch of Titus)
9. Tues. June 18
Imperial power and representation 2nd-4th century AD
Capitoline Hill by Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
15. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
16. Apotheosis of Sabina Relief (from Arco di Portogallo)
17. Arch of Septimius Severus
Quiz 6: Trajan's Forum Complex
Wed. June 19
JFRC 2 hrs, exact time TBA
Review for Final
10. Thurs. June 20
Suggested Reading: Library Stacks, Internet
- · Aicher, P. J. (2006), Rome Alive: a source-guide to the Ancient City [DG13 .A37 2004]
- · Albertson, F.C. (2001) " Zenodorus's "Colossus of Nero" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 46: 95-118 [JSTOR]
- · Anderson, J. (1982) "Domitian, the Argiletum and the Temple of Peace" American Journal of Archaeology 86.1: 101-110. [JSTOR]
- · Barton, E. (2007) "The scandal of the Arena" Representations 27 (1989): 1-36 [JSTOR]
- · Beard, M. (2007), The Roman Triumph[DG89 .B43 2007]
- · Beard, M., North, J.A. and Price S.R.F. (1998), Religions of Rome 2vols. [BL802 .B43 1998]
- · Boardman, J.ed. (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG231 .O84 2001]
- · Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J. and Talbert, R. (2004)The Romans: from Village to Empire. [DG209 .B58 2004]
- · Boyle, A.J. and Dominik, W.J. eds. (2003), Flavian Rome: culture, image, text. [DG286 .F53 2003]
- · Carter, M.J. (2006/2007) "Gladiatorial combat: the rules of engagement" Classical Journal 102.2: 97-114 [JSTOR]
- · Christ, A. T. (1997) "The Masculine Ideal of "the Race That Wears the Toga" Art Journal ,56,/ 2,. 24-30 [JSTOR]
- · Clarke, J. (2003) Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 315 [N72 .S6 C58 2003]
- · Coarelli, F. (2001) The Colosseum. [DG68.1 .C6513 2001]
- · Connoly, P. and Dodge, H. (1998) The Ancient City: life in classical Athens & Rome [DE59 .C59 1998]
- · Cooley, A. and Pormann, P.E. (2009) The first emperor and the queen of inscriptions: Augustus in his own words. Classics in Discussion, University of Warwick, Dept. of Classics, Jan. 2010: www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/podcast
- · Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. eds. (2000) Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City [DG63 .A57 2000]
- · D’Ambra, E. ed. (1993) Roman Art in Context. [N5760 .R64]
- · Davies, P. (1997) "The politics of perpetuation: Trajan's Column and the art of commemoration" American Journal of Archaeology 101.1: 41-65. [JSTOR]
- · Davies, P. (2000) Death and the Emperor: Roman imperial funerary monuments, from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius [NB1875 .D38 2000]
- · Elsner, J. (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph [N 5760 .E47 1998]
- · Flower, H. I. (2004) The Cambridge Companion to the RomanRepublic [DG235 .C36 2004]
- · Hannestad, N. (1986) Roman Art and Imperial Policy. [N5763 .H3513 1988]
- · Hemsoll, D. (1989) "Reconstructing the Octagonal Dining Room of Nero's Golden House" Architectural History, 32 : pp. 1-17
- · Holliday, P.J. (1990): "Time, history, and ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae" Art Bulletin 72/4, 542-57 [JSTOR]
- · Kellum, B. (1994) "The construction of landscape in Augustan Rome: the Garden Room at the villa ad Gallinas" Art Bulletin 76.2: 212-24. [JSTOR]
- · Kellum, B. (1997) "Concealing/revealing: gender and the play of meaning in the monuments of Augustan Rome " in T. Habinek and A. Schiesaro (eds), The Roman Cultural Revolution, 158-181 [DG 279 .R618 1997]
- · Kuttner, A. (1995):"Republican Rome looks at Pergamon" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 97, 157-78.[JSTOR]
- · Ling, R. (1991) Roman Painting. [ND120 .L56 1991]
- · MacDonald, W. (1976) The Pantheon: design, meaning, and progeny. [NA323 .M34 1976]
- · MacDonald, W. (1982) The Architecture of the Roman Empire (2 vols). [NA 310 .M2 1982]
- · Marlowe, E. (2006) "Framing the Sun: the Arch of Constantine and the Roman cityscape" Art Bulletin 88.2: 223-42 [JSTOR]
- · Noreña, C.F. (2003) "Medium and message in Vespasian’s Templum Pacis" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 48: 25-43. [JSTOR]
- · Orlin, E. (1997) Temples, Religion and Politics in Republican Rome. New York : E.J. Brill, 1997 (in series: Mnemosyne, bibliotheca classica Batava. Supplementum 164) [BL 805 .O75 1997]
- · Packer, J. (1997) The Forum of Trajan in Rome. A Study of the Monuments [NA 312 .P23 1997]
- · Patterson, J. (1992), "The City of Rome: from Republic to Empire" Journal of Roman Studies 82: 186-215 [JSTOR]
- · Platner, S.B. and Ashby, T. (2002 repr.)Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome [DG16.P685 2002 (Ref.)]
- · Rose, C.B. (1990) “Princes” and Barbarians on the Ara Pacis" American Journal of Archaeology 94.3: 453-67 [JSTOR]
- · Rose, C.B. (2005) "The Parthians in Augustan Rome" American Journal of Archaeology 109.1: 21-75 [JSTOR]
- · Scarre, C. (1995) The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. [G 1033 .S28 1995]
- · Sear, F. (1982) Roman Architecture. [NA310 .S44 1983]
- · Shelton, J.-A. (1998) As the Romans Did. A Sourcebook in Roman Social History [HN 10 .R7 S45 1998]
- · Stamper, J. (2005) The Architecture of Roman Temples. The Republic to the Middle Empire [NA323 .S73 2005]
- · Stevenson, T. (1998) "The ‘problem’ with nude honorific statuary and portraits in late republican and Augustan Rome" Greece and Rome 45.1: 45-69. [JSTOR]
- · Strong, D. (1988) Roman Art, 2nd ed. [N 5760 .S68 1988]
- · Thomas, M. L. (2004), "(Re)locating Domitian's Horse of Glory: The "Equus Domitiani" and Flavian Urban Design" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 49: 21-46 [JSTOR]
- · Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1993) Augustan Rome. London: Bristol Classical. [DG279 .W35. 1993]
- · Ward-Perkins, J.B. (1981) Roman Imperial Architecture [NA310 .W34 1994 ]
- · Welch, K. (2007)The Roman Amphitheatre: from its origins to the Colosseum [NA313 .W45 2007]
- · Wilson Jones, M. (2000) "Genesis and mimesis: the design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome" Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 59.1: 50-77 [JSTOR]
- · Wiseman, T.P. (2004) The Myths of Rome. [BL803 .W57 2004]
- · Woolf, G., ed. (2003) Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World. [DG209 .C36 2003]
- · Wright, D.H. (1987) "The true face of Constantine the Great" Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41: 493-507 [JSTOR]
- · Zanker, P. (1988), The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N5760 .Z36 1988]. Excerpts also available at: http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt.html and http://www.uark.edu/ua/metis2/zanker/zanker_txt2.html
- · Ziolkowski, A. (1988) "Mummius' Temple of Hercules Victor and the Round Temple on the Tiber" Phoenix 42/4: 309-33 [JSTOR]
INTERNET image resources
- · Vroma image archive: www.vroma.org accurate and reliable digital archive of Ancient Greek and Roman artworks; can be downloaded in jpg format
- · ARTSTOR: A digital library of nearly one million images that can be viewed on-line (in full, in zoom detail); can be stored on-line in personal folders; and can be downloaded in jpg format
- · Rome Reborn: www.romereborn.virginia.edu (3D reconstructions of ancient Rome)
- · Digital Roman Forum Project http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Forum/ (Good discussions and bibliography of monuments in the Forum Romanum.)
- · Ara Pacis Augustae: http://cdm.reed.edu/ara-pacis (good images and some basic information on the monument)