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Loyola University Chicago

John Felice Rome Center

CLST 395 Topography of Rome

Spring 2014

Loyola University

John Felice Rome Center

The Topography of Ancient Rome (CLST/ROST 395)

Spring 2014

Tues. 9:30-12:30


Prof. Sharon Salvadori

Office Hours by appointment

Email: ssalvadori@luc.edu

Cell phone: 339 545 9356


Course Description and Objectives

     This is an upper level survey course on the topography of the city of Rome from its origins (c. 753 B.C.) to the reign of Constantine (312-337 AD). The definition and development of urban space are examined in the context of their political, religious, military and social functions and meanings. Monumental art and architecture are the main “primary sources” for this examination of the built environment and visual culture of Ancient Rome. The primary aim of the course is to provide an in-depth familiarity and appreciation of the multifaceted nature of city in its original historical context.

     The class is taught at archeological sites and in museums in Rome. The course has a fee of 70€ per student to cover cost of tickets at sites. Please settle fee with the business office at the beginning of the semester.




Course Texts

Required Reading Library Reserve (chapters, entries or page numbers specified in the course schedule)

***With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in the course schedule

**********See also the list of Suggested Reading***********



Final grades are based on attendance, participation, 4 quizzes, 1 oral report, 2 tests, 1 final exam, and 1 term paper, as follows:


Attendance                                      required, not graded

Participation                                    5%

Quizzes                                            20%

Mid Term                                         20%

Final Exam:                                      20%

Oral Presentation                            15%

Term Paper                                      20%


Attendance (required not graded)

     All scheduled classes are mandatory. Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class. On-site courses obviously require moving, you must therefore always be punctual at our initial meeting points (specified below in the class schedule). You should calculate 90 minutes travel time from JFRC  and this means you must be out of the door by 8:00 AM! It is your responsibility to find out where the meeting places are. You may ask me in advance, but no later than during the class the week before. I will not respond to last minute emails or phone calls. Coarelli, F. (2007) Rome and Environs. An Archeological Guide  (your textbook!) has many useful maps to locate sites. For subway and bus lines consult www.atac. it (available in English).


Participation (5% of course grade)

     Active participation is expected of all students, but the level or amount of your engagement is graded. Although participation is only 5% of the course grade it could ensure an A rather than an A- as your final grade. Participating means coming to class having read the week’s assignment (listed in the schedule below), prepared to ask and answer questions and to share any pertinent observations. Remember too that the more you engage, the more fun the class will be not only for you but also for everyone else (me included).


Quizzes (20% of course grade)

     5 quizzes will be given in the course of the semester (the dates are inserted in the course schedule.) The quiz with the lowest score will be omitted from the final tally; the remaining 4 quizzes are therefore each worth 5% of the course grade. Each quiz will consist in a series of questions on specific areas, monument types (including individual structural or stylistic features), individual monuments or sets of monuments in Ancient Rome. They are designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. You may be asked the name of an area or monument, its location, its date, its function, its patronage; you may also be asked to describe it (main physical characteristics, structural and decorative components, materials used, etc); or you may be asked to a question on some aspect of its historical significance (e.g. the possible motivations for designating an area of the city with specific functions or the intended meaning- political, religious, social aesthetic, etc.- of individual monuments). The questions will be based on material that we have already covered in class, but completing the required reading is necessary to pass each and every quiz. Answers to individual questions should always be brief: in some cases  one or two words or word or a  short phrase will suffice and no answer should require more than two or three sentences. Depending on the quiz, you will be given anywhere from 5 to 10 minutes to answer.


Mid-term (20% of course grade)

The mid-term is a take home and consists of 2 parts that must be submitted to me via email. Questions will be posted electronically a week prior to the due date. They will consist in a combination of essays (min. 800- max. 1000 words) and short answer questions (min. 300- max. 500 words).  You may and, in fact, are encouraged to brainstorm as a class, but the answers must be in your own words. To achieve a top grade (B+, A- and A) you must demonstrate that you have read a least 4 relevant titles in the "Suggested Reading." Sources must be appropriately cited in your answers (MLA style will do) and bibliography provided at the end. Like the quizzes, the midterm is designed to assess your knowledge of essential facts and your ability to critically interpret and asses their historical significance. However, whereas in the quizzes your answers to each question must be brief, the mid-term will require longer, more articulated, as well as more

discursive answers.

     Part 1 due Fri. Feb. 14 The focus is on Rome from c. 753 to c. 100 BC (Kings to Republic)

     Part 2 due Thurs. Mar. 6 The focus is on Rome from c. 100 BC to AD 14 (Late Republic to Augustus)


Final Exam (20% of the course grade)

     The exam is structured to assess your knowledge of essential facts about areas, neighborhoods, monuments, artworks in Ancient Rome and your ability to critically interpret and assess their historical significance. The exam is cumulative, although with a greater emphasis on 2nd-4th century Rome (Trajan to Constantine). You may expect material from earlier periods to show up especially in comparisons (earlier to later).

     The exam will consist in:

6 slide identifications 5 minutes each, worth 30% of your exam grade (5% each).  Name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, and patronage must be specified as known or relevant. E.g. the Colosseum does not, strictly speaking, have a subject, but the marble friezes on the Ara Pacis do; a portrait statue of Augustus is just that, but the emperor may be depicted as young, middle-aged or old, may be dressed in civilian, priestly or military garb (or combinations...) and these kinds of visual elements must be both mentioned and described (e.g. what visual devices are employed to represent Augustus made to look youthful? what iconographic elements denote that he is officiating as a priest?). Last but not least,  you must indicate at least one reason the topographical area, monument or artwork was significant in its original historical context.  For example in addition to noting that the Colosseum was built by Vespasian on the site of the artificial lake in Nero's Domus Aurea complex, you should explain (however briefly) that the location was very significant from a symbolic (and propagandistic) point of view since it transformed imperial property destined for the private enjoyment of Nero to a public venue destined for the entertainment of all Roman citizens. Similarly, in addition describing how a portrait of Augustus depicts him as young, you should mention that all his portraits show him a young and discuss (however briefly) what message was being conveyed by this representation of " eternal" youth....An identification which lists a complete series of correct facts, but fails to discuss why they are significant, will score lower than one that is missing a few facts but which includes an assessment of historical significance.

4 slide comparisons 10 minutes each, worth 40% of the exam grade (10% each). One or more images of two sites or monuments will be shown to you. You must identify each one (again name, typology, date, media, (original) location, function, patronage, but also (and most importantly) consider them in relation to one another: i.e. discuss significant similarities and differences (often variously combining meaning, function, patronage, structural or formal components). Typically the primary significance of comparisons is rooted in historically specific (and significant) thematic connections. E.g. if the comparison consists of the garden room at Livia's villa at Prima Porta with the Ara Pacis (the Altar of Peace), the fact that the first is decorated with paintings and the second with sculpture, is less important than the fact that the imagery depicted in both expresses interrelated or similar (though not identical) concerns of the Augustan period in different viewing contexts, denoting both the pervasive and sophisticated character of Augustan visual ideology ...obviously you would mention the salient elements of that ideology...

1 essay 30 minutes, worth 30% of the exam grade. Two weeks prior to the exam (and a week before our review session), you will be given 2 essay questions accompanied by images of sites and/or monuments. One of the two will be on exam. However, the other topic will undoubtedly show up in the identifications and comparisons, so be sure to prepare for both.


Presentation (15% of course grade)

     The oral presentation consists of a 10-minute report (no more) to the class on an area, monument, artwork or historical topic.

     The presentation is intended to develop your skills in independent research, observation, interpretation, evaluation and public speaking. Developing the ability to express yourself orally in a clear, concise and effective manner is as important as the content of the presentation (content without form undermines content itself...)

     The presentation topics have been inserted in the course schedule. There will be a sign up sheet by next Tuesday. 

The presentation in class must include:

• a descriptive account of the monument/artwork

• a contextual and interpretative discussion (function, patronage, meanings, associations, impact, etc., as relevant)

• a pertinent Ancient source to be read to the class (Aicher 2006 and Shelton 1998 are two good sourcebooks)

• 2-3 questions raised by the monument, artwork or subject addressed to the class to engage them directly in your topic and so further develop it

Your presentation must clearly demonstrate that

1. you have read and understood the required reading listed on your syllabus for your topic

2. you have read and understood at least one additional academic source on your topic; the most obvious (and easiest) option is to choose a relevant publication from the "Suggested Reading" listed on your syllabus; but other pertinent books and periodicals available in the JFRC library, or available through JSTOR, MUSE and other legitimate academic publication data bases may also be used. Please be aware that for other Internet sources, the rule of thumb is if it exists in print it is acceptable, if doesn't it isn't.  So, e.g. an article from an academic periodical that has been made available on line is fine, but a web-site on monuments, historical background, etc. is not. When in doubt, please ask me.

On the day of presentation you also must submit:

     1. summary (c.3 pages) of your presentation to be tuned into me.

     2. one-page or two-page handout to all members of the class(including me) with an outline of indicating the key points of your presentation. If appropriate, please also provide copies of supporting images from books or the internet (please search ARTSTOR and Vroma.org before using other internet image data bases). if pertinent plans, images etc. are available in course handbook, make sure to at least refer to them by page numbers.

     3. A bibliography to be given to all members of the class(including me). It must include:

• relevant titles from the required reading on your syllabus

• reference to the ancient source quoted during presentation

• additional title/s from the suggested reading or your own research

     the presentation itself combined with 1-3 above is the basis of your grade


Term Paper (20% of the course grade)

     Due Date:  Tues. Apr. 15 No late papers accepted. Early papers welcome.

     Length: 3000 words (c. 8 double-spaced pages), exclusive of footnotes, bibliography, sketches and/or other supporting images

     Topic: Flavian Rome

     The paper is intended to develop skills of independent research, ability to evaluate and interpret materials and their inherent interests, and capability for discussing these in a nuanced manner in writing. The paper must combine visual analysis, iconographic and historical research and contextual interpretation. In other words, a formal essay that demonstrates the skills that you have developed and honed during the semester. The paper must also include a complete bibliography of primary and secondary sources used and all references must be fully cited in the paper itself. Outlines or drafts are optional but must be turned in at least 2 weeks prior to the due date; similarly if you have questions on content and bibliography set up an appointment with me at least 2 weeks prior to the due date.  For minor questions on content, bibliography, format  paraphrasing, quoting primary and secondary sources or methods of citation set up an appointment with me at least one week prior to the due date.  Please note that but there is no required format for citations; what is required is consistency that is, pick one format and stick to it!

** Additional guidelines, with details on the topic and other specifications, will be posted on Blackboard in the first few weeks of the semester. We will also be reviewing these guidelines in class.


Course Reading Looking and Note-Taking

     With the exception the course handbook, all readings are listed by author and date in course schedule, including chapters, entries or page numbers. The readings listed in the course schedule are occasionally repeated. This is because we proceed chronologically, topographically and thematically and focus on both art and architecture in the city of Rome, while the organization of the books in the required and suggested reading varies.

     Please be aware that this is a reading intensive course and to successfully complete it you should spend at least 5 hrs per week outside of class reading text and images and taking notes on both.  The "Required Reading" alone varies from 20-50 pp p/wk, plus images. Note too that completing your required reading means going to the library and using the reserve shelf.  Please organize your time, keeping in mind that other students will also be using the shelf (Xeroxing relevant pages is an option).

     A bibliography of additional reading is provided after the course schedule (under heading entitled: Suggested Reading). A number of these readings are assigned, under the heading "Suggested Reading" in the course schedule. This means that they are not mandatory, but they are strongly recommended. Students who achieve top grades (B+, A- and A) are those who consistently do a significant amount of the recommended reading. Many of the sources cited, moreover, will be indispensable for both your presentation and term paper. The titles are abbreviated in the schedule, but are listed in full in the bibliography at the end of the syllabus. They are available on the reserve shelf in the library, in the stacks in the library, or retrievable from the internet, especially via JSTOR. If you have never downloaded articles from JSTOR the librarians will be more than happy to show you how easy it is! You are also strongly encouraged to look at as many Roman monuments as possible both in person, reproduced in books and available on line (see the list of Internet resources also provided); this is par for the course for anyone taking art history. And of course to read even more.

     The course-handbook must be brought to each and every class, as it has plans, elevations, reconstructions of monuments and excerpts from Ancient authors that we will consult during class.

     Class-handouts. Beginning with the second class (our first on-site), you will be given a hand-out consisting of a brief summary of the class, a list of the areas, monuments visited, and terms (usually no more than 1 or 2 typed pages). Occasionally images or excerpts from Ancient texts not included in the handbook will also be provided. These handouts are meant to help you organize your notes but, as you will quickly realize, they in no way replace careful note-taking.

     Taking notes in class. As for any course it is imperative to take notes, but because we will almost invariably be standing during class you should consider a liquid-ink pen or a pencil and a hard-back note-book or a clipboard for your note pad. Taking notes in your course handbook is also an option (and a helpful one, as you have text and images together), but it is soft and so probably also requires the aid of a clipboard.

     Photography. You are allowed to bring your camera to class, but may take pictures only after we have finished discussing individual monuments; that is, without interrupting class.

     Dress-code. Please remember to wear sturdy but comfortable shoes and to be equipped for the weather. Note too that in Italy, generally speaking, the better you dress the better they treat you. You do not, by any means, have to be elegant when you come to class, but please do not come in sweat-pants, shorts, ripped T-shirts and jeans, flip-flops and the like.


Grade Scale

A =       100% - 95%

B- =      79% - 75%

D+ =    59% - 55%

A- =      94% - 90%

C+ =     74% -70%

D =       54% - 50%

B+ =     89% - 85%

C =       69% - 65%

F=        49% and below

B =       84% - 80%

C- =      64% - 60%




Marking Criteria

Grade: A Work of this quality is rare and should stand out. It may be the case that in some areas of study a modest number of students achieve this mark on some assignments. However, when aggregating the marks awarded for the various elements of assessment, it is not expected that many students will achieve this overall result.  Work that receives a grade of A is characterized by the following:

Grade: B This is a highly competent level of performance. Students earning this grade may be deemed capable of pursuing more advanced study. Work that receives a grade of B is characterized by the following:

Grade: C This is an acceptable level of performance. All competent students should be expected to achieve at least this level. Work that receives a grade of C is characterized by the following:

Grade: C- This level of performance demonstrates some knowledge and an element of understanding but is, on the whole, weak. Students attaining this level of performance should compose a small minority of those in a course and should not expect to progress to more advanced degree work. Work that receives a grade of C- is characterized by the following:

Grade: D These grades indicate that the students in question have barely done enough to persuade the instructor that they should not be failed. Work that receives a grade of D is characterized by the following:

Grade: F Failing grades should be granted to work that indicates to the instructor that the students who submitted it have not benefited in any clear way from academic study. Failing work:


Academic Honesty is assumed of all students. All forms of academic dishonesty (cheating on exams, plagiarizing papers, etc) will result automatically in an F for the assignment and may result in the student receiving a failing grade for the course (irrespective of the weight of the assignment). All instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean. Please consult the LCU undergraduate catalog for a full description of the University’s academic integrity policy.


1. Tues. Jan 21








Meeting place:


Suggested Reading:


Introduction to course


  • Course content and methodology
  • Course requirements, logistics, etc.
  • Chronological and thematic overview
  • Early Italy: the Latins and their neighbors in central Italy
  • Early Rome between Magna Grecia and Etruria




Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Elsner (1998), Ch. 2 ("A Visual Culture");Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction); Claridge (1988): 3- 27 (historical overview)


2. Tues. Jan 28



Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:


Rome's foundation: topography and mythology/

Architectural typologies and building materials


Ponte Garibaldi viewing platform on left side (when facing Trastevere)


Coarelli (2007): 1-9 (Introduction), 348-50 (Tiber Island), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 315-19 (Portus Tiberinus, T Portunus and Ara Maxima Hercules), 323-27 (Circus Maximus); Claridge (1988): 37-58 (building materials and techniques, architectural orders and dimensions, building types) Xeroxing the pages from Claridge is strongly recommended, as they will come in handy throughout course; on bldg. techniques and construction materials see also Coarelli's Appendix


Coulston and Dodge in Coulston and Dodge 2000: introduction to archeology and topography of Rome; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome; Wiseman (2004): Roman Myths


Sign up for oral presentations


3. Tues. Feb. 4


Meeting place:


Required reading:






Suggested Reading:

Monuments and identity: Kings to Republic


Palatine Hill entrance on Via di San Gregorio


Coarelli (2007): 130-38 (intro. Palatine, Iron Age huts, western temples), 42-47 (intro R Forum), 91-92 (Archaic cemetery), 81-89 (Via Sacra, Regia, T Vesta, House Vestal Virgins), 50-57 (Shrine Venus Cloacina, Comitium, Curia Hostilia, Black Stone), 65-66 (T Saturn), 74-77 (T Castor and Pollux and Juturna); Stamper (2005): 6-10 (Kings of Rome) and 34-40 (early Republican R Forum)


Claridge (1988): 3-7 (history Kings to the 3rd cent. B.C.), 119-128 (intro. Palatine, Hut of Romulus, Victory Precinct and T Magna Mater), 61-65 (intro. R Forum), 68 (Shrine of Cloacina), 72-73 (Comitium and Black stone), 77-78 (T Concordia), 80-81 (T Saturn), 91-92 (T Castor and Pollux), 95-97 (Juturna), 101-106 (T Vesta and Regia); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in the Mid-Republic; Smith in Coulston and Dodge (2000), esp. 24-35: early and Archaic Rome



1. Temple of Vesta

2. Temple of Castor & Pollux

3. Temple of Saturn


*Quiz 1:  architectural orders / Roman use of architectural orders


4. Tues. Feb. 11


Meeting place:


Required reading:








Suggested Reading:
















Republican Rome: triumphs & temples, honor and fame


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 28-36 (intro. Capitoline, T JOM, Area Capitolina), 40 (T Juno Moneta, Auguraculum), 260-67 (intro C Martius, Circus Flaminius), 270-71 (T Apollo Sosianus and T Bellona), 275-83 (Area Sacra) 289-90 (Saepta Julia), 307-10 (intro. F Holitorium, et al), 313-19 (Temples F Holitorium, T Portunus and Round T); Stamper (2005): Ch. 1 & 2 (T JOM), 44-48 (Area Sacra Largo Argentina), 49-50 (triumph, victory temples), 53-56 (temples southern Campus Martius), 59-68 (temples F Holitorium, T Portunus), 68-81 (Round T, Area Sacra Largo Argentina)


Beard (2007), esp. 42-53, 92-106: triumphal route/culture; Claridge (1988): 3-9 (history), 229-241 (Capitoline), 177-80 (intro C Martius), 215-19 (Area Sacra), 207 (Saepta Julia), 247-55 (T Bellona, temples F Holitorium, arcades along the triumphal way, S.Omobono temples, T Portunus, Round T); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), pp. 219-227: (entertainment/ theatres); Cornell in Coulston and Dodge (2000): Rome in mid-Republic;  Flower (2004): triumphs, funerals, spectacle & politics; Orlin (1997): Republican temples & politics; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Shelton (1998): 251-52, 329-31: triumphs & spectacles; Ziokowski (1988): Round T



4. Temple Jupiter Optimus Maximus

5. Round Temple in the Forum Boarium


*Quiz 2: Roman Forum Valley: Kings to Republic



Fri. Feb. 14





*Mid-term Part I due via email - no later than 7 pm*





5. Tues. Feb. 18


Meeting place:


Required reading:





Suggested Reading:







Pompey, Caesar and Augustus: monumental power and architecture


Piazza Farnese fountain on right when facing Palazzo Farnese


Coarelli (2007): 103-113 (F Caesar, F Augustus), 283-285 (Theater Pompey); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro Augustus and Augustan art) and 99-103 (F Augustus); Stamper 84-90 (Theatre Pompey), 90-102 (intro Caesar and F Caesar), 130-141 (intro Augustus and F of Augustus)


Claridge (1988):9-14 (history), 148-53 (F Caesar), 158-161 (F Augustus), 215 (Theater Pompey); Kellum (1997): esp. 164-7 (F Augustus); DeRose Evans (2009): Sculpture Theatre Pompey; Kuttner (1999): Theatre Pompey; Kuttner (2004): Art in Republican Rome; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), 185-215 (F Augustus)



6. Theater and Portico of Pompey

7. Forum of Julius Caesar



6. Tues. Feb. 25




Meeting place:


Required reading:




Suggested Reading:








Honorific portraiture and public self-representation

from the Late Republic to Vespasian

 The Garden Fresco from the villa of Livia at Prima Porta


Palazzo Massimo entrance (Piazza dei Cinquecento, by Termini)


Kleiner (1992): Ch. 1: 31-47 (Republican Portraiture), Ch. 2, 59-69 (intro to Augustus and Augustan portraiture), 75-89 (Augustan female portraiture and freedmen portraits)


Christ (1997); toga/ togate portraits; Claridge (1988): 3-14 (history); Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. Part I (honorific portraiture), 181-213 (male body types), 262-270 (Republican portraiture), and 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Kellum (1994): garden fresco; Kleiner (1992): Ch. 3: 123-141 (Julio-Claudian portraiture); Stevenson (1998): honorific nude portrait statues; Smith (1981): Republican Portraits; Strong (1988): Preface to the First Edition and Ch. 1 ("The Beginnings"), Ch. 2 (The Mid and Late Republic), Ch. 4 (Transitions to the Empire and Augustus); Zanker (1988): Introduction, Ch. 1, esp. 5-25, Ch. 2, esp. 33-65, and. Ch. 3 (Late Republican portraits/ Augustan portraits)



8. The "General of Tivoli" (marble portrait statue)

9. Garden Fresco from the villa at Prima Porta


*Quiz 3: Forum of Augustus


7. Tues. Mar. 4


Meeting Place:


Required reading:






Suggested reading:


The Campus Martius in the Age of Augustus


Side of the Ara Pacis Museum by inscription opposite Mausoleum of Augustus


Coarelli (2007): 260-272 (intro C Martius, Theater Marcellus, T Apollo Sosianus, Portico Octavia), 285-286 (Baths of Agrippa), 299-304 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Kleiner (1992): 59-61 (intro to Augustus and Augustan art), 90-99 (Ara Pacis and Mausoleum); Stamper (2005): 105-108 (Augustus), 126-129 (Augustan Campus Martius);


Claridge (1988): 11-14 (history), 181-192 (monuments northern C Martius), 222-226 (Porticus Octavia),and243-247 (Theatre Marcellus, T Apollo Medicus Sosianus); Clarke (2003): 19-28 (monuments northern C Martius); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 219-227 (entertainment/ theatres); Davies (2000): 13-19, 76-78 (horologium) 137-42 (mausoleum); Kleiner and Buxton (2008): Ara Pacis; Holliday (1990): Ara Pacis; Heslin (2007): horologium;  Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire;Rose (1990): Ara Pacis; Strong (1988): 80-84 (Ara Pacis); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"); Zanker (1988), esp. 72-75, 139-43, 156-9, 172-83 (Augustan C Martius)



10. Mausoleum of Augustus

11. Augustan Sundial (aka Horologium)


Thurs. Mar. 6


*Mid-term Part II due via email - no later than 7 pm*




Fri. Mar. 7

Sun. Mar. 16


*********SPRING BREAK*********

8. Tues. Mar. 18




Meeting Place:


Required reading:









Suggested reading:















Dynasty and Power: the Roman Forum of Augustus

The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians

*N.B. monuments that feature in the term paper are analyzed in this class


Roman Forum: Via dei Fori Imperiali entrance


Coarelli (2007): 42-54 (R Forum overview, Bas. Aemilia, Porticus Gaius & Lucius, Comitium), 57-59 (Curia), 64-5 (Rostra), 71-75 (Bas. Julia, T Castor and Pollux), 79-81 (Divus Iulius, Arch of Augustus), 66-67 (T Vespasian & Titus), 97-88 (Arch of Titus), 159- 160 (intro Col. Valley), 177-186 (intro Esquiline and Domus Aurea); Stamper (2005): 103-104 (Caesarian R Forum), 141-150 (Augustan R Forum), 151-156 (Flavian rebuilding of JOM), 159-161 (T Vespasian & Titus), 168-172 (Arch of Titus); Kleiner (1992): 113-117 (legacy of Augustan art), 167-173 (intro Civil War AD 68-69 and Flavian Dynasty), 183-190 (Arch of Titus)


Albertson (2001): Colossus Nero; Claridge (1988):9-17 (history), 61-68 (intro R Forum, Porticus Gaius & Lucius, Bas. Aemilia), 70-72 (Curia), 79-80 (T Vespasian & Titus), 81-84 (Rostra), 89-90 (Bas. Julia), 97-99 (Divus Julius, Arch of Augustus), 116-118 (Arch of Titus), 290-292 (Domus Aurea);Davies 2000: 19-27, 67-71, 142-48 (Arch of Titus); Gurval (1997): Divus Julius/Comet; Patterson (1992): Rome topography Republic to Empire;Pollard (2009): T of Peace; Rose (2005): esp. 28-36 (Parthian Arch/ Arch of Augustus); Strong (1988) 122-132 (Domus Aurea, Arch of Titus); Thomas (2004): Equus Domitiani and Domitan patronage R Forum area; Von Blanckenhagen (1954) Imperial Fora; Walker in Coulston and Dodge 2000: 61-75 (Augustan patronage); Ward Perkins (1981): Ch. 1 ("Augustan Rome"), 56-61 (Domus Aurea) and 63-84 (Flavians) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution"); Zanker (1988), esp. 79-82, 98-99 (Augustan R Forum, Parthians)



12. Temple to the Deified Julius Caesar

13. Arch Augustus/ Parthian Arch

14. Colossus of Nero



























9. Tues. Mar. 25




Meeting Place:



Required Reading:







Suggested reading:


The re-shaping of central Rome from Nero to the Flavians, cont.

Trajan's Forum Complex

*N.B. monuments that feature in the term paper are analyzed in this class


Metro stop Colosseo (B line): by Roman sarcophagus recycled as a fountain (to the left as you exit, past newspaper stand)


Coarelli (2007): 159- 160 (intro Col. Valley), 177-186 (intro Esquilne and Domus Aurea), 164-172 (Col., Ludus Magnus), 125-128 (T Peace), 113-115 (F Transistorium), 115-125 (Trajan's F and markets); Kleiner (1992): 179-81 (sculptural display T Peace), 192-194 (F Transistorium), 212-223 (sculpture in Trajan's F); Stamper (2005): 151 (intro Flavians), 156-159 (T Peace), 161-168 (F Transistorium), Ch. 10 (Trajan's F)


Anderson (1982): T Peace and F Transistorium; Claridge (1988): 15-25 (history), 276-284 (Col. and Ludus Magnus), 153-157 (T Peace, F Transistorium) 161-172 (Trajan's F and markets); Clarke (2003), 28-41 (Trajan's F); Coleman in Coulston and Dodge (2000), 227-240 (entertainment/ amphitheaters); Davies (1997) and (2000): 127-135 (column of Trajan); Noreña (2003) T of Peace; Packer (2001): Trajan's F (see for plans and reconstructions); Pollard (2009): T Peace; Strong (1988): 141-153 (Trajan's F); Taub (1993): Forma Urbis; Ward Perkins (1981): 63-84 (Flavians), 84-95 (Trajan's patronage in Rome) and Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution"); Welch (2007), 147-62 (Domus Aurea and Colosseum)



15. Colosseum

16. Trajan's Column

*Quiz 4: Augustan Roman Forum


*Discussion of Term Paper: remember to bring Guidelines*


10. Tues. Apr. 1



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:







Suggested reading:










Imperial Fora (at Museum of the Fori imperiali in Trajan's markets)

The Antonine Campus Martius


Trajan's Column


Von Blanckenhagen (1954) "The Imperial Fora" JSAH 13/4, 21-26 [JSTOR- dated but a gem of succinct clarity]; Coarelli (2007):  286-89 (Pantheon), 291-93 (Hadrianeum), 296-99 (columns M. Aurelius and A. Pius); Kleiner (1992):  283-85 (Hadrianeum), 295-301 (column M. Aurelius); Stamper (2005): Ch. 11 (Pantheon) and 212-14 (Hadrianeum)



Claridge (1988):9-25 (history), 193-206 (column M. Aurelius, Pantheon & Hadrianeum); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 42-53 (column M. Aurelius comp. to column Trajan); Davies (2000): 34-48, 79-83 and 158-171 (Mausoleum Hadrian, Pantheon, columns A. Pius and M. Aurelius); Pirson (1996): column of M. Aurelius; Strong (1988): 206-11 (column M. Aurelius); Thomas (1996): Pantheon Agrippa to S Severus; Ward-Perkins (1981): Ch 4 ("Materials and Methods: The Roman Architectural Revolution) and 111-18 (Pantheon)


Please note: the Required and Suggested reading on the imperial fora is listed in classes #s 5, 8 & 9



18. Column of Marcus Aurelius



11. Tues. Apr. 8



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:





Suggested reading:


Monuments of Severan Rome 



Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 60-63 (Arch S Severus), 320 (Arch of the Argentarii) 155 (Septizodium), 327-331 (Baths of Caracalla); Kleiner (1992): 317-319 (intro Severans), 329-32 (Arch S. Severus), 334-339 (Arch of the Argentarii, Baths of Caracalla)


Brilliant (1967): Arch S Severus; Claridge (1988): 17-27 (history), 75-76 (Arch S Severus), 259-60 (Arch Argentarii), 319-28 (Baths of Caracalla); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Elsner (2005): Arch Argentarii; Gorrie (2004): Julia Domna patronage; Hughes (2009): Province Reliefs; Lusnia (2004): Septizodium; Marvin (1983): Sculptures Baths Caracalla; Strong (1988): 218-222 (Severan reliefs)


*Quiz 5: Pantheon


12. Tues. Apr. 15



Meeting Place:


Required Reading:










Suggested reading:







The public re-presentation of the imperial persona

 2nd century-4th centuries AD


Capitoline Hill by equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius


Coarelli (2007): 98-99 (T Venus & Roma), 160-163 (Arch Constantine); Kleiner (1992): 207-212 (intro to Trajan; portraiture of Trajan and Plotina) 237-42 (intro to Hadrian; portraiture Hadrian and Sabina), 253-56 (Arco di Portogallo Reliefs and Adventus Relief), 267-80 (intro Antonines and Antonine portraiture), 283-85 (intro Antonine State Reliefs and Hadrianeum reliefs), 288-95 (Marcus Aurelius Reliefs), 316-29 (intro to Severans and Severan portraiture), 357-384 (intro. to 3rd cent. and 3rd cent. portraiture), 433-455 (Constantinian portraiture and Arch Constantine; on the Arch see also see also pp. 251-53 and 288-95); Stamper (2005): 206-212 (T Venus and Roma)


Claridge (1988): 17-27 (history), 113-115 (T Venus and Roma), 272-76 (Arch Constantine); Clarke (2003): Ch. 2, esp. 53-67 (Arches of S. Severus and Constantine); Fejfer (2009): Roman portraits, esp. Part I (honorific portraiture) and 331-426 (imperial portraiture); Harrison (1967): Constantinian portraiture; Hughes (2009): Province Reliefs Hadrianeum; Marlowe (2006): Arch Constantine; Smith (1985): imperial portraiture; Smith (1997): early 4th century imperial portraiture; Strong (1988): 159-62 (Trajanic portraiture), 171-82 (Hadrianic portraiture and relief sculpture), 200-01 (Aurelian relief panels), 211-14 (Antonine portraiture), 228 (Severan portraiture), 250-255 and 264-5 (third century portraiture), 264-266 (Tetrarchs), 278-280 (Constantinian portraiture); Strong (1988): 276-278 (Arch Constantine); Wilson Jones (2000): Arch Constantine: Wright (1987): Constantinian portraiture


*********TERM PAPER DUE**********


13. Tues. Apr. 22


Meeting Place:




***Review session for Final Exam***




Remember to bring review sheet.

Please also come to class with questions based on your revision

Exam week:

Sat. Apr. 26 and Mon-Thurs. Apr.28-May 1


********Final EXAM at JFRC**********

Date and Time TBA

Suggested Reading: Library Stacks, Internet

INTERNET image resources


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