Loyola University Chicago

Office of Research Services


  • Activity – the rate of disintegration (transformation) or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the Becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci)

  • ALARA – As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  • Bioassay – determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations and, in some cases, the location of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body

  • Exposure – irradiation by ionizing radiation or radioactive material

  • Exposure rate – exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute (R/min) and milliroentgen per hour (mR/hr)

  • High Radiation Area – any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in a dose equivalent in excess of 0.1 rem in 1 hour at 30 cm from source of radiation

  • Ionizing Radiation – gamma rays and X-rays, alpha and beta particles, high speed electrons, neutrons, protons, and other nuclear particles capable of producing ions directly or indirectly in their passage through matter

  • Personnel Monitoring Devices – devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent

  • Radiation Safety Officer(RSO) – an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection regulations and has been assigned such responsibilities by the licensee

  • Radioactive Material – any solid, liquid, or gaseous substance which emits radiation spontaneously

  • Radioactivity – the disintegration (transformation) of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation

  • Restricted Area – any area access to which is limited by the licensee for purposes of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to sources of radiation


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