Chapter 13: Conclusion

Philip Nyden
Loyola University, Chicago

John Lukehart
Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities

Michael T. Maly
Roosevelt University

William Peterman
Chicago State University


The purpose of this study was not to engage in an academic exercise and neatly classify diverse communities into appropriate categories. The two models of stable diversity outlined in chapter 1 -- diversity by direction and diversity by design -- are helpful for understanding the different origins and different characteristics of stable and diverse communities in American cities. The important task ahead is to understand what has produced this stable diversity and make clear that segregation and resegregation need not be the norm in American urban communities. Alternatives exist if we are willing to examine and learn from them. Before detailing our recommendations, it is helpful to provide a summary of the characteristics that are common to all of the diverse communities studied and the ways in which the community characteristics varied.

Chapter 13: Conclusion (*.pdf)